A popular quarterly newsletter written by Richard Klass.
A friend made a $200,000 personal loan (“Lender”) to one of his friends (“Borrower). At the time the loan was made in 2016, the Borrower signed a promissory note in favor of his Lender friend, promising to repay the loan within ten months with interest. According to the terms of the Promissory Note, if the Borrower failed to repay the principal and interest in full by its due date at the end of 2016, any accrued interest would thereafter be calculated at the default rate of twenty percent per annum. In addition, the Promissory Note stated that “[n]o term of [the Promissory Note] may be waived, modified or amended except by instrument in writing signed by both of the parties.”…
The judgment debtor and his wife maintained a joint account at JPMorgan Chase Bank at a branch located in New York. The judgment creditor’s attorney served a restraining notice on Chase’s Court Orders and Levies Department located in Ohio. The bank restrained the joint account and the judgment debtor squawked that the restraining notice should not be honored due to the “separate entity” rule….
The buyer of a Brooklyn building sued the seller for fraud and breach of contract after the closing of title. The buyer made several claims against the seller, including that the roof was leaking, it wasn’t new, and the construction and renovations performed on the building were shoddy and done only to quickly “flip” the property. The buyer also claimed that the tenant’s signed estoppel certificate was false. The buyer’s attorney claimed that no ordinary amount of due diligence would have revealed that the roof was leaking; only destructive testing done prior to closing would have shown water intrusion or mold. The seller’s position was that any alleged defects in connection with the sale of the building could have been raised before the closing of title. Once the closing took place, any alleged defects were waived; the representations in the contract of sale merged with the transfer of title….
COVID-19 has had a deleterious effect on New York’s commercial landlords. Due to the pandemic, many tenants have been unable to meet their lease obligations; in turn, this has resulted in the domino effect of landlords being unable to meet their mortgage obligations. Landlords have been hampered from evicting non-paying commercial tenants because of the Governor’s executive orders placing a moratorium on commercial evictions for over a year….
Two partners owned vacant lots in Manhattan and wanted to build on them. They found two developers who pitched building townhouses on the lots. The four of them entered into a joint venture agreement (“JVA”). Essentially, the agreement was that, in return for the developers paying off debts owed on the lots, refinancing an existing mortgage and obtaining a new construction loan, the lot owners would transfer the property to a limited liability company (“LLC”) to be jointly owned by all four of them…..
After a few minutes, you realize the pig likes it.
She had to convalesce in a rehabilitation center for comprehensive (sub-acute) in-patient care following illness. Upon admission, the resident was presented with the facility’s admission agreement for her to sign. The agreement provided that, in exchange for payment through Medicaid, Medicare, insurance or direct pay, the facility would provide all of the patient’s basic and routine services, including lodging and boarding and professional nursing care….
She obtained a money judgment against a property owner for personal injuries she sustained. To collect the judgment, the injured plaintiff’s counsel retained Richard A. Klass, Your Court Street Lawyer as special collection counsel.
Proceeding to declare there’s no homestead exemption:
Once a judgment has been entered, there are various enforcement measures available to the creditor to collect the money due on the judgment from the debtor. One of the most effective means of enforcing a Judgment is through a Sheriff’s auction sale of a debtor’s real property….
The crisis has been averted. The lawyer did a great job for his client. The lawyer sent his client the final bill for services rendered. Unfortunately, the client now had other bills to pay and the legal problem the lawyer dealt with was starting to appear very small in the rearview mirror….
The company’s porter was operating a manually-controlled freight elevator in a large Manhattan industrial building owned by the defendants. The porter, who was employed by a tenant of the building, was in the process of bringing the elevator up to the eighth floor at the time of the accident. According to him, the heel of his left foot became caught between the fourth floor landing and the moving elevator….
The subcontractors brought an action against the general contractor and its principal alleging breach of an oral contract made in January 2007 for failing to pay for construction services rendered on a building located in Flushing. The action was dismissed as to the individual and the subcontractors’ request for a default judgment against the general contractor was denied….
A foreign company sued a New York State resident, seeking to force the sale of his house in order to satisfy its judgment. The company existed under New Jersey law with a New Jersey corporate address. The house was located in Nassau County….
This case study begins with a graphic and possibly upsetting description of violent events leading up to a criminal case. Then, the narrative continues with a discussion of the accompanying civil case. If the reader prefers to begin with the discussion of the civil case, they may skip to the second heading “Order of Attachment.”]
Order of Attachment
Lauren retained a personal injury attorney to sue Jeff in a civil action in New York for the intentional torts he committed against her. Jeff owned a couple of buildings in New York and a half-interest in the Florida condominium. The attorney hired Richard A. Klass, Your Court Street Lawyer, as special counsel to seek to ” attach ” Jeff’s properties to ensure that he wouldn’t sell, mortgage or dispose of them in order to evade payment of monetary damages to Lauren….
The court reporting agency is in the business of making stenographic records of depositions and proceedings in litigation. A law firm ordered the services of the court reporting agency’s stenographers to take down witnesses’ testimony in various personal injury and medical malpractice cases.
The law firm broke up and its partners agreed to close their firm, discharge its liabilities and settle all accounts. In their settlement of their dissolution, the partners agreed to remain liable for all debts, liabilities and other obligations of the firm; reimburse disbursements and expenses incurred by the firm; and be personally responsible for an obligation of the firm….
He owned his own house. When Harald married Florence a year later, he transferred title to the house from himself to “Harald and Florence, his wife.” By virtue of this language in the deed, ownership of the house was now held in a “ tenancy by the entirety ” (see, Estates, Powers & Trusts Law Section 6-2.2). After many years of marriage, Florence passed away, leaving Harald as the surviving spouse of the former tenancy by the entirety and sole owner of the house by operation of law. Subsequently, Harald transferred title to the house to his nieces.
Executor of Estate of Deceased Wife Sues
Florence’s executor brought a lawsuit against Harald and his two nieces to claim Florence’s share in the house as part of her estate. The executor demanded that the house be returned to Florence’s estate for disposition according to her Will. In response, Harald and his nieces filed motions to dismiss the lawsuit based upon documentary evidence….
Enforcing an Arbitration Clause and Keeping the Case Out of Court
The company is well known for hosting seminars where attendees can learn the ins-and-outs of real estate investing through “ house flipping. ” House flipping involves purchasing a house for a low price, fixing it up and then reselling the house for a profit. The company has all attendees register for its seminars by paying fees and signing its registration agreement.
One of the attendees was dissatisfied with the information she received at the company’s seminar. She decided to sue in New York State Supreme Court for the return of all of her registration fees. The attendee alleged that the minimal “products and services” listed in the materials were “inherently of negligible worth” and “grossly disproportionate” to the money she paid for the seminar….
In New York City, there are City Marshals, who carry out almost all of the same tasks as Sheriffs, including evicting tenants, towing cars, seizing businesses and levying on bank accounts. However, unlike Sheriffs, City Marshals aren’t elected to office, aren’t government officers who get paid salaries, and make their income from fees and a percentage of moneys collected through their enforcement duties. Also, their jurisdiction extends only throughout the City of New York….
Two developers were in the business of purchasing New York State real properties for purposes of building, renovation, rehabilitation and/or construction of those properties for sale, conversion into condominiums or retain as rental properties….
He was an associate at a law firm that handled cases involving workplace discrimination, including cases based upon age, disability, gender, race, religion and sexual orientation discrimination. The associate decided it was time for him to transition from the law firm to another firm in which he would become a partner. Some of the law firm’s clients whose cases were handled by the associate elected to transfer representation from the former firm to the associate’s new law firm….
I’m ready, willing and able / And honey, now it’s up to you
So lay your cards on the table / And tell me what you plan to do. – Doris Day
The owner of a 4-family house was ready to make a quick sale for $1.5 million. The buyer agreed to enter into a contract of sale for the house in “as is” condition in an all-cash deal to close seven days after signing the contract. Right before the closing, however, a dispute arose between the parties regarding the actual closing date. The seller attempted many times to close title, including sending several “time of the essence” notices to set a firm closing date. Each time, the buyer’s attorney responded that it could not close on the date but proposed an alternate closing date….
Their mother owned several valuable properties. While she was alive, the mother did some estate planning to minimize potential estate taxes. As part of her estate plan, she transferred the properties into limited partnerships….After meetings and conversations among the siblings about their mother’s estate and the son/manager’s sale of the properties, a couple of the sisters accused the son/manager and his brother of committing fraudulent acts. Specifically, they accused the brothers of selling the properties at below-market prices to entities owned by the brothers….
The associate of a law firm found another opportunity and decided to leave his current firm for another. The associate contacted existing clients of his current law firm to ask if they wanted him to continue as their attorney and follow him to the new firm. A bunch of clients agreed to transfer their cases to the new law firm…
Way back in 1982, a wife and her husband purchased a home in Brooklyn. The wife’s mother-in-law — her husband’s mother — provided $20,000 to help the couple make the purchase. At the time the money was provided, the mother-in-law had not firmly decided whether she considered the $20,000 a gift or a loan….
He was the owner of two buildings on one lot in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. Greenpoint is an area well known for its warehouses and lofts, and is now a very desirable neighborhood for residential development. It is also well known that many tenants in commercial lofts in and around Greenpoint reside in them instead of just using them as artist studios or business spaces. One building housed the owner’s gym business and the other was a three story loft building. Along with the property itself, the Transfer of Development Rights (TDRs) were very valuable to developers, as they would allow greater development of another property. The owner negotiated the sale of the whole property for $16 million….
She was hired as a salesperson for a company that sold water purification systems. The company also installed and maintained those systems (known as “reverse osmosis” or “RO” systems). The company had a policy that all salespeople had to sign its Independent Business Owner contract, which laid out the retention terms including the salesperson’s right to sales commissions and restrictive covenants (or promises) in favor of the company….
— George Thorogood, “One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer”
The landlady rented the storefront space to an interior decorating firm. This commercial tenant signed a lease to rent the store and an individual provided a personal guarantee of the lease….
opens in a new window“What’s in a Name?” asked Shakespeare.
opens in a new window“$300,000” we replied.
The child got injured as a result of a trip and fall accident in a building in Brooklyn. His mother hired a law firm to pursue his personal injury claim. The law firm recovered judgment in favor of the child against the building’s owner; however, it was having trouble collecting on the Judgment because the owner seemingly did not have premises liability coverage on the building….
The tenant lived in an apartment building in Brooklyn, New York for several years. She dutifully paid her rent to her landlord. After several years, she discovered that the rental amount she was paying exceeded the legally-allowed amount for her rent-stabilized apartment according to New York State law….
A New York City college bought an old garage on a residential street with the intention of eventually tearing it down and using the vacant lot in the development of a 17-story building. The owner of the adjacent apartment building was more than glad to have the college demolish the garage, which had become an eyesore. In order to demolish the garage, however,…
A comprehensive medical practice was opening up in an office building and needed extensive renovations in the space. The medical practice hired a construction company to handle the build-out of the office at a cost of over $250,000. The construction contract specified that the contractor would achieve “substantial completion” of the project within 3 months after work began in April 2012. Unfortunately…
This guiding principle is so important that it is laid out in several passages throughout the Bible. It is incumbent upon an employer to pay the wages of its employees on a timely basis. If the employer does not pay its employees, New York State law provides employees with significant remedies, including an entitlement to monetary penalties against the employer over and above the unpaid wages and the recovery of attorney’s fees….
The cabbie’s nightmare began with courtesy and continued with insult and injury. It began as just another busy day in the life of a New York livery cab driver: picking up and dropping off passengers. On this particular day, the cabbie had pulled to the curb just past a bus stop in Manhattan to let out a passenger. He then stepped out of the car to open the passenger’s door. Perhaps he thought a little extra courtesy might result in a bigger tip but, no matter the reason, in this case, it cost him dearly….
It was a really nice car – a 1999 Chevy Camaro with only 51,000 miles. Maybe it wasn’t the most expensive car (like a Chevy Corvette) but Mad Max loved driving it on weekends. Mr. Max also had another vehicle (a truck) that he needed for work during the week. Unfortunately, Max’s business wasn’t doing well and he was forced to file for personal bankruptcy due to his mounting debts. As part of filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, Max had to submit to the Bankruptcy Court his Petition….
In 2006, New York State enacted the Home Equity Theft Prevention Act(“HETPA”) for the purpose of affording greater protection to homeowners who face foreclosure proceedings against their homes. HETPA was instrumental in addressing increasingly rampant swindling where con men, proposing to “help” homeowners out of foreclosure, instead, stole homes and home equity from homeowners through deed/equity thefts and other mortgage foreclosure “rescue” scams….
The business idea was a good one: one partner, we’ll call him “Salesman,” was experienced in the stone business. He would bring his knowledge and talents. The other partner, we’ll call him “Moneybags,” would bring his cash. Together, they would launch a business to import and distribute stone material from China….
Mel Brooks’ movie and musical The Producers may have been a fictional story of fraudsters selling more shares in the production of their Broadway show “Springtime for Hitler” than actually existed, but such fraudsters exist in real life, overselling available interests not only in Broadway productions, but in every type of investment, including real estate….
On a recent day, “Jack” (not his real name) went to an ATM to withdraw money from his bank account. To his surprise, he could not. Upon contacting the bank’s customer service department, he discovered that his bank account was restrained and could not be accessed. The bank’s representative informed him that there was a judgment against the joint accountholder—a friend, we’ll call him “Stan”—and this was the reason for the restraint on the account….
Those famous words were said by the Wolf in the fairy tale Three Little Pigs. Sometimes, municipalities have to say those same words to homeowners whose buildings become so damaged that they have become “unsafe.”…
A Kings County homeowner was unable to pay his mortgage. He had been in and out of bankruptcy and his Midwood-area house had been in foreclosure since 2007. A Judgment of Foreclosure and Sale had been entered in 2010. Now, the foreclosure auction was scheduled for September 13th. In laymen’s parlance, the auction sale date is the “drop dead” date for the homeowner to keep his house and, in the final days before the auction, the homeowner needed Richard A. Klass,Your Court Street Lawyer, to save the house from the auction block….
The client was injured and hired a lawyer to prosecute his personal injury claim against various entities for negligence. The lawyer agreed to handle the personal injury claim for a one-third contingent legal fee. “Contingent fee” refers to an arrangement with an attorney for payment of a percentage of an amount recovered for the client through settlement or resolution of the claim; a one-third contingency is fairly standard in personal injury matters….
More than fifty years ago, a charitable woman executed her Last Will and Testament, bequeathing all of her assets to two Catholic charities in the event that her siblings did not survive her. The two Catholic charities named in the Will were the Columbus Hospital and St. Joseph Rest Home for the Aged, each to get 50% of her estate. Both of these institutions were founded or operated by Italian American Catholic Orders.In March 2008, the woman passed away, leaving more than $3,000,000 worth of assets in her estate. Since her siblings predeceased her, the Will left everything to the two Catholic charities….
The homeowner had a bunch of problems. Not only was he saddled with over $30,000 in credit card debt spread across several credit card accounts, he had also just received the Summons and Complaint, filed by his mortgage lender, seeking to foreclose on the mortgage recorded against his home. He was delinquent on his mortgage and owed many months’ worth of mortgage arrears. This homeowner is one of the tens of thousands of homeowners across the State (and more across the country) who have fallen into foreclosure with little help or support….
Bad economic times over the past few years have seen the foreclosure of tens of thousands of properties across New York State (as well as around the country). One corporate landlord had two commercial rental buildings located in Brooklyn. Spread across those two buildings was a ‘blanket’ mortgage of $1.1 million (the term ‘blanket mortgage’ refers to one mortgage recorded against two or more properties). The buildings fell into foreclosure as a result of the landlord’s inability to pay the mortgage loan and the general economic downturn in the area. The corporation that owned the buildings and the individual owner who signed a personal guaranty of the mortgage loan were sued in the mortgage foreclosure proceeding….
In the typical mortgage foreclosure proceeding, the mortgage lender (or “mortgagee”) brings an action against the homeowner to foreclose on its mortgage against the real estate, generally because the homeowner (or “mortgagor”) failed to make payments on the loan. The mortgage is the legal document recorded by the mortgagee against the mortgagor property to provide the collateral for the making of the loan. In case of default in payment, the mortgagee has the right to sell the collateral to satisfy the remaining balance due on the loan (most foreclosure proceedings are judicial sales, where a court has authorized the sale, as opposed to ‘non-judicial’ sales in limited circumstances). Sometimes, in a foreclosure action, the plaintiff is not the holder of a mortgage but rather has another type of lien against the real estate, such as a tax lien for unpaid real estate taxes, mechanic’s lien (for building supplies or labor performed), or judgment lien….
A Trust was created by a woman in her Last Will and Testament (testamentary trust), leaving her children and their issue (children) as the sole beneficiaries of the trust. The Children’s Trust was formed as a “mixed” discretionary trust; meaning that the trustees maintain the discretion to pay moneys to the beneficiaries of the trust but the trust itself is a spendthrift trust, whereby the beneficiaries cannot invade the trust or, in other words, take out money themselves. A “discretionary” trust is typically set up to give the trustees the authority to pay money (either principal or interest) as they see fit, considering the lifestyle and resources of the beneficiary. A “spendthrift” trust prohibits the beneficiary, creditors of the beneficiary, or any other person from taking money out of the trust….
The Long Island Railroad (LIRR) leased one of its old rail yards in Queens to a recycling company. One of the recycling company’s employees was working the late shift on a rainy evening in 2003. That rainy night, he was assigned the task of welding on a portion of the metal fence surrounding the yard with an acetylene torch. He got up on a ladder, climbed up several rungs, and started to weld. At that point, the injured worker got a shock from the welding equipment. The ladder then shifted in the mud and he fell to the ground, suffering severe injuries. Since that incident, he was unable to work, having become disabled, and having had several surgeries to his back and knee….
The Executor of the estate of a man who owned a mixed-use building in Brooklyn sold it to someone for $700,000. As part of the sale, the Executor agreed to take back two mortgages on the property from the buyer in favor of the decedent’s wife, the beneficiary of the estate.The buyer (and now building’s owner) defaulted on the mortgages by failing to make payments on them to the beneficiary/lender. At that point, the mortgagee turned to Richard A. Klass, Your Court Street Lawyer, for legal assistance to commence foreclosure proceedings on the two mortgages against the buyer….
At her local supermarket, a shopper bought her groceries and started to walk out the front door of the market with her cart. As she walked out, the entire door at the exit came unhinged from the frame and slammed down on her. The door managed to slice off the rear portion of her leg, taking out part of her calf. The result was a painful ordeal, requiring extensive medical treatment.The shopper decided to retain Richard A. Klass, “Your Court Street Lawyer,” to pursue her claim for personal injuries based upon the negligence of the supermarket. An action was brought in the Supreme Court, Kings County against the supermarket, alleging negligence for the fallen door….
Two sisters and their respective husbands decided to purchase a two-family house in The Bronx in 1995. At the closing, they took title to the property, reflected on the Deed, as follows: “Gilberto Hernandez and Consolacion Hernandez, his wife …. And Erlinda Que and Elpidio Rodriguez, her husband.” Erlinda executed her Last Will and Testament, in which she devised her “half share and interest in the real property” to her sister, Consolacion, and her husband, Elpidio, in equal shares. In December 2000, Erlinda passed away, survived by her husband, Elpidio.For a long time after Erlinda’s death, Elpidio and his deceased wife’s sister continued to maintain the house. At some point, he remarried and wanted to sell it and move. And, when they all couldn’t agree on how to accomplish this, a lawsuit was initiated called a “Partition and Sale” action. In this type of lawsuit, the parties ask a judge to order the property sold at auction….
The foreclosure auction of the defendant’s Staten Island house came up on a Wednesday at 9:30AM. The courtroom was packed with people ready to bid on the house. The Referee announced the sale of the house, took bids, and struck down the sale at $73,000 to the successful bidder.Moments later, the Referee informed the successful bidder that one of the two owners of the house had filed bankruptcy at 9:26AM; therefore, the foreclosure sale was invalid and the bidder should take back his bid deposit. At that moment, the successful bidder called Richard A. Klass, Your Court Street Lawyer about whether the sale was indeed invalid….”
In 1997, a landlord rented a commercial space to a tire company pursuant to a commercial lease agreement. The tenant defaulted in the payment of rent, owing the landlord the claimed arrearage sum of $157,000. To collect the rent arrears, the landlord came to Richard A. Klass, Your Court Street Lawyer to recover….
He got the Summons and Complaint from a process server in 2007. The name of the plaintiff suing the defendant was “New Century Financial.” He had never heard of the plaintiff and did not know why it was suing him. The Complaint claimed that the defendant had a Providian credit card account and owed money on the account. He remembered having an account with Providian a long time ago and also remembered making his last payment to Providian in the Fall of 2000….
In 2006, the executor of the estate of a woman who owned a cooperative apartment in Brooklyn attempted to sell the apartment. She first made a contract with a black woman who had two children to sell the apartment for $160,000. The contract of sale provided (as almost all do in cooperative apartment sales) that the buyer had to apply to the coop board for approval of the sale. She applied to the coop board for approval; then, dissention came about between the resident board members and the sponsor-management company. Despite supposedly being “approved” by the residents on the board, the management company claimed that the board was not legally constituted; accordingly, no closing of title would be scheduled….
In Borough Park, there lived an elderly couple in a house (the Kimmels). Their neighbor (Twersky) was interested in renting the first floor apartment for her son and his family. At the time that she rented the apartment, it was in poor shape and in very poor condition; indeed, the entire house needed extensive renovations. In 1995, Twersky and the Kimmels entered into a lease agreement….
A brother tried to help his sister, and it almost cost him millions of dollars. Based upon the brother’s good credit, his sister bought a house in Queens in his name. At some point, she was unable to keep up with the mortgage payments and the house fell into foreclosure…
In 2006, a developer entered into a contract to purchase a large industrial warehouse in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, in order to convert the property into residential housing. The Contract of Sale provided for a purchase price of $16,728,000….
In legal matters, there is an attorney-client relationship from the moment that the attorney is consulted by the client until the matter concludes. If, during the term of this relationship, the attorney was negligent or commits malpractice in the matter, the client may have a claim against the attorney for legal malpractice. Sometimes, the malpractice is committed at the early stages of litigation and not at the conclusion; for instance, an action may have started in Year 1, malpractice was committed in Year 2, and the action concludes in Year 6. The question then becomes whether or not the client may pursue a claim against the attorney for the malpractice committed in Year 2, when the statute of limitations period may have already passed….
In the Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR) – the “Game Book” of civil practice in New York State courts, there is a little-used device called the “Notice to Admit.” While not as often utilized by attorneys as it ought to be, it can pack a powerful punch to the other side in litigation….
The “ American Rule ” governs most cases in United States’ courts, where each party to the litigation bears its own costs and attorney’s fees (as opposed to the “ English Rule, ” according to which the loser of the litigation is chargeable with the winner’s attorney’s fees). There are three exceptions to the “American Rule,” which are when there is:
(a) an agreement between the parties pertaining to attorney’s fees;
(b) a statute which awards reasonable attorney’s fees to the “prevailing party;” or (c) a court rule provides for attorney’s fees….
In 2004, a guy went out for a night of drinkin’ on the town. On the way home, he stopped in to one last bar to drink. At the bar, in a very drunk condition, he hit on a woman. After leaving the bar to go home, he saw standing by a nearby building a woman who he thought was the same one as the one in the bar. When the guy saw the woman on the street, thinking it was the one he saw in the bar, he grabbed and touched her. Unfortunately, it turned out that she was not the same woman — and she pressed charges of assault….
In the typical real estate transaction, the seller is interested in selling the property, the buyer is interested in buying it, and the Contract of Sale is merely used to memorialize the deal and as the basis for the buyer to obtain a mortgage commitment from a mortgage lender. The closing takes place; everyone leaves happy!…
Recently, I had the opportunity to successfully represent a client at a traverse hearing in the Civil Court. This article will illustrate the purpose and effect of such a hearing….
Typically, the sale of real estate involves the signing of a contract of sale between the owner of the real estate and the prospective buyer for a certain dollar amount. Each side is eager to close the transaction — the seller wants the money from the closing to purchase another property and the buyer wants to move into the house….
The above headline seems a strange topic for this newsletter. It does not address a particular area of law, or seem to relate to most people other than lawyers. However, this is not so, and is an important development of which the general public should be aware….
In 1994, tax payments were made to the NYC Department of Finance for several parcels of real property by a client. In 2001, unbeknownst to the client, the Department of Finance unilaterally reversed the payments made, added interest, created tax liens, and bundled up the liens for public auction sale….
Almost every parcel of real property within New York City is assessed taxes on an annual basis. When these real estate taxes are not paid, tax liens are created by law which “attach” to the property. The tax lien, similar to other liens, serves as notice to the public that the City has a claim against the property. Traditionally, New York City was enabled by statute to bring “in rem” proceedings to foreclose on the lien and, thus, become the owner of the property….